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Diode Laser Spectroscopy
 • Perform Doppler-free Spectroscopy of Rubidium Vapor
 • Use Michelson and Fabry-Perot Interferometers for Calibration
 • Determine Resonant Faraday Rotation in Rb Vapor
 • Observe Coherent Population Trapping
 • Measure Temperature Dependence of Absorption and     Dispersion Coefficients of Rb Vapor
 • Lock Laser to Rubidium Hyperfine Transition
 • Study Zeeman Splitting in Rb Spectrum at Two Wavelengths
 • Examine Stabilized Diode Laser Characteristics

Diode Laser Spectroscopy

(Recommended Accessory for Diode Laser)
Fabry Perot Interferometer
 • Includes : Confocal 20 cm Cavity {Free Spectral Range - 375 MHz,    Finesse ~ 100, Mirror reflectivity >99%, Center Freq., 780 nm, band width    (99% reflectivity) 80 nm} ∙ Iris ∙ 2 Support Posts with bases ∙ Manual



Earth's Field EFNMR 1-A with
Earth's Field w/ Gradient/Field Coil EFNMR 1-B
 • Observe the Free-Induction-Decay Signals From Protons, Fluorine,     and other Nuclei
• Discover Curie's Law and Spin-Lattice Relaxation
 • Cancel Gradients Due to Local Effects, Observe Natural FID
 • Use Helmholtz Coils for Absolute Measurement of Proton Magnetic     Moment
 • Homogenize Local Earth's Magnetic Field
 • Permit Measurement of Spin-Spin Relaxation (T2)
 • Demonstrate One-Dimensional NMR Imaging (MRI)
 • Generate Observable (and Audible) Spin-Echoes
 • Permit Absolute Measurement of Nuclear Magnetic Moments
 • Provide Fields for Experiments on 31P and 2H Nuclei
 • Show Quantitatively that Magnetic Fields Add as Vectors
 • Study Field Dependence of NMR

Recommended Accessory: Hall Effect Probe

earths_field_NMR Device    Earth's Field w/ Gradient/Field Coils

Faraday Rotation
 • Measure Verdet Constant of Transparent Solids and Liquids
 • Study Interaction of Light, Matter, and Magnetic Fields
 • Use with Lock-In Amplifier to measure Extremely Small Verdet    Constants

Recommended Accessory: Power Audio Amplifier

Faraday Rotation

Fourier Methods

 • Learn Frequency-Domain Analysis Using a Variety of Frequency-
    Space Examples
 • Use the Unsurpassed Frequency Resolution, Dynamic Range, and
    Versatility of the SR770
 • Carry Out Experiments on Modulation, Demodulation, and Signal
 • Execute three 'External Experiments' (Coupled Mechanical Oscillator,     Flux gate Magnetometer, Acoustic Resonator) Reinforcing Frequency-
    Space Methods
 • Explore the Comprehensive Instruction Manual Covering Curricular     Activities, Projects and Mathematics


SR770 Fourier Analyzer (Stanford Research Systems)

Coupled Mechanical Oscillator

Electronic Modules (Fifteen Functional Circuits)

Fluxgate Magnetometer

Acoustic Resonator

Hall Effect Probe
 • Measure the Magnetic Fields You Teach
 • High Sensitivity 2 x 10-6 T
 • Student Calibration of Probe
 • Transverse and Radial Sensors

Hall Effect Probe

Magnetic Force
 • Discover Magnetic Force Depends on Field Gradient
 • Measure µ from Magnetic Force
 • Measures Magnetic Moment by Magnetic Force
 • Measures dB/dz vs z for a Current Loop
 • Resolves Pervasive E&M Misconceptions

Recommended Accessory: Hall Effect Probe
Magnetic Force

Magnetic Torque
•  Measure µ Five Independent Ways
•  Observe "Classical" Analog of Magnetic Resonance
•  Model Nuclear Precession and NMR Spin-Flip
•  Gyromagnetic Ratio
•  Includes Magnetic Force Balance

Modern Interferometry
•  Build Michelson, Sagnac, and Mach-Zehnder Interferometers
•  Generate and Count Interference Fringes Manually or Electronically
•  Use 'Quadrature Michelson Interferometry to Count Bi-Directionally
•  Thermal Expansion, Magneto-Striction, Index or Refraction, and the     Electro-Optic and Piezoelectric Effects and More
•  Observe White-Light Interference and Quantify Optical Coherence
•  Measure Thickness Interferometrically with 80-nm Resolution
•  Includes Two Lasers, Proprietary Flexure Mirror Mounts, Up-Down         Electronic Counter, Multiple Detectors, etc. - Everything You Need for     a Course in Interferometric Measurements

Muon Physics
 • Measure Muon Lifetime
 • Demonstrate Relativistic Time Dilation
 • Detect Cosmic-Ray Muon Flux
 • Variable High Voltage and Discriminator Levels

Noise Fundamentals
  • Detect and Quantify Johnson Noise, the ‘Brownian Motion’ of     Electrons
  • Deduce Boltzmann’s Constant, kB, from the Temperature     Dependence of Johnson Noise
  • Observe and Quantify Shot Noise in Order to Measure the     Fundamental Charge ‘e
  • Configure Front-End Low-Level Electronics for a Variety of     Measurements
  • Investigate 'Power Spectral Density' and 'Voltage Noise Density' and     their V2/Hz and V/√Hz Units
  • Apply Fourier Methods to Digitally Process Noise Signals into Noise     Densities
  • Explore Amplification, Filtering-in-Frequency, Squaring, and     Averaging-in-Time
  • Develop Skills Applicable Across the Breadth of Measurement Science

  • Optical Pumping of Rubidium Vapor
     • Precisely Measure Hyperfine Structure
     • Study Rabi Oscillations
     • Optical Pumping of Rubidium Atoms, Rb85 and Rb 87
     • Explore Magnetic Hyperfine Interactions of Rubidium
     • Observe Zero-Field Transitions
     • Confirm Breit-Rabi Equation
     • Observe Double Quantum Transitions
     • Measure Optical Pumping Times
     • Study Temperature Dependence of Experimental Parameters

        Optical Pumping

    Power Audio Amplifier  
     • True Biopolar Amplifier
     • DC - 20 kHz, 10 V p-p, 1 A Output
     • Low Impedance Output

     • Discriminate Pulse Events From a Noise Background, for Pulses of     Amplitude 10 mV to > 1 Volt
     • Correctly Count 'Events Per Unit Time', with 0.1, 1.0, or 10-Second     Counting Intervals
     • Alternatively, Measure the Time-Interval Between a Pulse and its     Successor Pulse, to 1- µs Resolution
     • Write Date Files of Unlimited Length of Successive Counts Per Unit     Time, or Intervals Between Successive Counts.
     • USB Interface for Computer Logging

    Pulsed/CW Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer
     • Explore NMR for Both Hydrogen (at 21 MHz) and Fluorine Nuclei
     • Magnetic Field Stability to 1 part/106 over 20 minutes
     • Homogenized Magnetic Field with Electronic Shim Coil
     • Research Grade Measurements of T1 and T2
     • Compare CW and FID Signals From Both Protons and Fluorine
     • Measure Chemical Shifts in Inequivalent Hydrogen and Fluorine     Nuclei
     • Observe PNMR/CW NMR in Soft Solids
     • Known Gradients for One Dimensional Imaging and Measuring     Diffusion
     • 0.49 Tesla Magnetic Field (21 MHz Proton NMR)
     • Envelope and Quadrature Phase Sensitive Detection
     • Spin Echo and Free Induction Decay (FID)
     • Carr-Purcell, Meiboom-Gill Pulse Sequences
     • Signals from Soft Solids Enhanced by 10µs Receiver Recovery Time
     • Lock-In Detection Module for CW Signals from Solids with Wide Lines
     • Built-In Magnetic Field and RF frequency Sweeps for CW Resonance
     • Digital Clock Stability in both RF Frequency and Pulse Width     Synthesis
     • Modular Construction
     • Data Taken on Your Oscilloscope


    Quantum Analogs
    Acoustic models of:
       - Hydrogen Atom
       - Hydrogen Molecule
       - Lowering symmetry to lift degeneracy
       - Band gaps in semiconductors

    Thermodynamic Measurement of:
       - Velocity of Sound in Air and Other Gases
       - Velocity of Sound as a Function of Temperature

    Signal Processor/Lock-In Amplifier
     • A Teaching Lock-In
     • Multiple Electronic Strategies for Processing
        Electronic Signals
     • Noise Generator and Test Signals Built-In
     • Modular Layout
     • Students Can Follow the Signal Through the "Modules"

    For Additional Experiments: Faraday Rotation w/ Power Audio Amp

    Torsional Oscillator  
     • Fully Instrumented Test-Bed for Investigating Simple Harmonic
     • Variable Torsion Constant and Rotational Inertia
     • Non-Contact Precision Analog Sensors Provide Angular Position and     Velocity
     • Damping Options Range from Constant to Velocity Dependent and     Include a v2-Friction Regime
     • Magnetic Torque Drive Accommodates Arbitrary Electronic Drive     Waveforms
     • Resonant Behavior in Time and Frequency Domains with "Q"     Ranging From Less Than 1 to More Than 100

    Two-Slit Interference, One Photon at a Time
     • Perform Two-Slit Interference with Single Photon
        Source and Detector
     • Recreate Young's Two-Slit Measurement of the
        Wavelength of Light
     • Investigate Quantitatively the One-Slit and Two-Slit             Interference Patterns
     • Learn the Properties of Photomultiplier Tubes and Pulse
     • Use Counter's Computer Interface to Investigate the Statistical
       Properties of Photon Events

    Two Slit Interference, One Photon at a Time

    TeachSpin Pulsed UltraSound Physics Package
    (GAMPT Distributor for the United States/Canada)
    Advanced Applications of Pulsed UltraSonics
     • The Proprietary TeachSpin Instruction Manual:
      - Emphasizes the Basic Physics of Ultrasound Measurements
      - Gives References to the Literature
      - Provides Self-Discovery Student Experiments
      - Encourages Data Collection on Digital Oscilloscopes
      - Offers Self-Directed Student Projects

    Debye-Sears Effect, The Basis of Acousto-Optic Modulation
     • Investigate Velocity of Propagation, Frequency Dependence,
        Wavelength, Acoustic Impedance and Absorption Coefficients in Both
        Liquids and Solids
     • Learn Non-Destructive Detection of Imperfections, Cracks, Vacancies,     and Defects in Solids
     • Study the Effects of Both Impedance Matching and Mismatching at
        Material Interfaces
    • Create an Ultrasonic Diffraction 'Grating' Using the CW Generator
        and the Broadband Ultrasonic Transducer (Debye-Sears Effect)
     • Learn Experimental Skills Transferable to Other Pulsed Time-
        Domain Investigations

    See Instrument Pages and Prices for details

    Individually Available Parts
    • This assortment of components, originally developed for
       Teach Spin instruments, will work with home built projects
       as well. If there is another part you might find useful,
       please contact us.

    Components used with:
    • Diode Laser
    • Modern Interferometry
    • Optical Pumping